The status of cities, Islands and rocks of Spain in Africa is problematic, particularly with regard to the Islands and rocks. In general, the position of Spain on Moroccan territorial claims has been reactive, so it has ceded the initiative always to Morocco. This article proposes that Spain will take a double initiative: (1) differentiate the statutes between the cities, on the one hand, and the rocks and Islands, on the other hand, with an internal regulatory development specific to this last block of territories; and (2) involve the EU and Morocco eventually in the environmental management of the Islands and rocks. In this way, the EU could act of dulcificador external factor of the bilateral territorial issues, which are potentially more dangerous for Moroccan complex relations.


Real Instituto Elcano

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Alejando del Valle Gálvez, Professor of public international law, Jean Monnet Chair of immigration and right borders of the EU, University of Cádiz.